Personal Journal writing, writing journal, and writing prompts

Personal Journal writing, writing journal, and writing prompts 

Journal writing – Do you think advent of writing has had a major influence in making our world as it is now? If writing had not been invented what would our world be like? Reflect on it for a few minutes. Write your reflections here.

Procedural/Instructional Text

Journal writing – Procedure involves following steps: Title (purpose) Ingredients/Materials Steps/Method Title Ingredients/ materials Steps/ Method Tips

The procedural text tells the readers how to do or make something. The information is presented in logical sequence of events that are broken into steps.

Journal writing – A procedure is a sequence of steps in a particular order. It is also known as instructions or directions. The most common example of procedural text is a recipe.

Journal writing – There are three (3) types of procedural texts: Texts that explain how something works or how to use instructions or operation manual, for example, how to use a video game, a computer etc. Texts that instruct how to do a particular activity, for example, games, science experiments etc. Texts that explain how to make something, for example recipes (Wing, 1991).

It is the goal or outcome of the activity, for example; how to make banana muffin, how to make bakso, how to operate a video game, etc It is the list and amount of things and materials required.

It is the step-by-step description of how to complete the task.  It is the final comment or

Language features of procedural text: Let’s look at the noun phrase pattern. This is the pattern we follow when writing procedural text.

2 teaspoons 4 pieces 10 pieces 5 cups

brown soft fresh white

palm Japanese Indonesian Thai

sugar tofu chilies rice

Let’s look at adverbs in procedural text. Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. They tell us how, when, where and under what conditions something happens. Adverbs usually end in -ly but all adverbs do not end in -ly, for example: quite, really, wonderfully, beautifully etc.


Journal writing – You should fry the banana slices – You drill the holes in the wall – You should press the button – You should stir the sauce – When the class is over, walk towards the bus. – You should filter the solution – Add remaining vegetables to the


for 3 minutes till they turn golden brown. carefully so that the holes are of the same size. gently. vigorously, so that lumps do not form. quietly. carefully till the water is clear. slowly .

Let’s look at Action verbs pattern. Action verbs are used to give instructions to represent the processes involved in completing the task.

Action Verbs

Cut Put Wash Fold Twist Drill Squeeze Don’t cut Don’t put Don’t drill


the bananas into thin slices. the bananas on the plate. the vegetables before cutting them. the wrap slowly. the dough into small rings. holes in the plank. a little amount of glue. the apple slices too thin. cream on the fruits. too deep.

Let’s look at the temporal conjunction pattern. Temporal conjunctions are used to ensure that processes are placed in correct order


First, Then, After that, Finally,


take a slice of bread, spread some butter on it, fold the bread your bread is ready

Let’s look at the modal verb pattern. Modal verbs are used in instructions to lessen or heighten the degree of requirement in completing the task. – You should beat the egg vigorously. – You might add some chilies, if you like. – You could add some extra holes in the plank.


– Use Action verbs like cut, fold, twist, drill, squeeze, drill, remove etc. – Procedural text focuses on general people rather than individual person. For example: You should cut the roll into tiny circles rather than I should cut the roll in

Journal writing

Journal writing

to tiny circles. – Use of linking words or temporal conjunctions such as first, second, next, when, then, finally. – Give detailed information on the following: – How (cut it carefully with cookie cutter) – Where (start from the top) – When (after it has set) – Detailed factual description (shape, size, color, amount). – Number your steps. – Write each step on a new line. – Include visuals for each step.

Word Power

exist advent emerge evolve prominent alter imaginary significant crucial merge relevant \ɪgˈzɪst\ \ˈadv(ə)nt\ \ɪˈməːdʒ\ \ɪˈvɒlv\ \ˈprɒmɪnənt\ \ˈɔːltə\ \ɪˈmadʒɪn(ə)ri\ \sɪgˈnɪfɪk(ə)nt\ \ˈkruːʃ(ə)l\ \məːdʒ\ \ˈrɛlɪv(ə)nt\

To be alive, occur or be found in particular place or situation. Arrival of something notable. Become apparent or prominent. Develop gradually. Important, famous. Change in character or composition. Something that exists in imagination. Note-worthy or worthy of attention. Decisive and critical. Combine or blend to become one. Closely connected or appropriate to matter in hand.

Examples of Procedural Writing


Ingredients – 2 oranges – 2 teaspoons of sugar – pinch of cinnamon Materials – Handheld juicer – Sieve – Glass – Knife – Cutting board

Steps/Methods – First, wash the oranges and put them on a cutting board. – Then, cut the oranges into halves. – After that, prepare the handheld juicer and put the oranges on the juicer and squeeze them one by one. – Continue doing this till all oranges have been juiced. – If you want your juice without pulp use the sieve to take out all the pulp – Now, add 2 teaspoons of sugar and a pinch of  – Now, add 2 teaspoons of sugar and a pinch of cinnamon if you want and stir till the sugar and cinnamon has completely dissolved. – Finally, your orange juice is ready to be served.

Tips – You can add ice cubes to make it cold. – You can peel the rind of the orange and put it on the glass as decoration. – Orange juice can stay fresh for 2 days in the fridge. – Do not leave it outside.


You will need: – A packet of jasmine seeds. – A small pot – Loamy soil – Fertilizers – Water

– Mix the soil with fertilizer well to create a medium for planting the seeds. – Scatter seeds on the surface of the soil. – Cover the seeds with a 3mm layer of soil.

– Press the soil firmly, then spray with water to moisten the bed. – Place the pot in warm, sunny position (at least 25 C) for 10-14 days. – Seeds will germinate approximately in 10-14 days.

– Keep the soil moist but avoid over watering. – Watch for small black droppings and holes in leaves which indicates your jasmine has caterpillars.

Let’s Practice

1. Below are given ingredients for Indonesian chicken satay. Can you write a procedural text for Indonesian chicken satay in the graphic organizer.

Indonesian Chicken Satay Ingredients/equipment: 3 tablespoons (45ml) soya sauce 3 tablespoons tomato sauce 1 tablespoon (15ml) peanut oil 2 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed 1 pinch ground black pepper 1 pinch ground cumin 6 skinless, boneless chicken breast halves, cubed 1 tablespoon (15ml) vegetable oil ¼ cup grated onion, about half a medium onion 1 clove garlic, peeled and crushed 1 cup (250ml) water ½ cup (125g) chunky peanuts Picture 6.6 (Source: 2 tablespoons (30ml) soya sauce 2 tablespoons caster sugar 1 tablespoon (15ml) lemon juice, about one small lemon skewers Barbeque grill Coal

2. Read the procedure text carefully and answer the questions given below.


You will need: – 2 slices of bread – A slice of cheese – An oven toaster – A plate – A knife 1. First, switch on an oven toaster and heat it for 1 minute. 2. Second, take 2 slices of bread and place a slice of cheese between the slices of bread. 3. Third, place the slices in the oven for 5 minutes. 4. After 5 minutes check it. If the bread is slightly golden brown, take it out carefully. 5. Cut the cheese toast. 6. Put the cheese toast on a plate. 7. Your cheese toast is ready to be served Tips: – Make sure you wear oven mitts. – Be careful when you take the cheese toast out. – Let the cheese toast cool before eating. The cheese can burn your tongue.


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